Founded by Maharishi Mahesh Yogi

Scientific Research

The scientific research on Transcendental Meditation is the largest and strongest body of research in the world on any programme to develop human potential. With more than 600 scientific studies conducted at 250 independent universities and institutions in 33 countries. Published in over 100 of the world’s leading scientific journals and proving benefits in every aspect of life.

Research at a glance

The scientific research on Transcendental Meditation is the largest and strongest body of research in the world on any programme to develop human potential. With more than 600 scientific studies conducted at 250 independent universities and institutions in 33 countries. Published in over 100 of the world’s leading scientific journals and proving benefits in every aspect of life.

Benefits to many areas of life

Researchers have concluded that Transcendental Meditation enlivens the body’s inner intelligence, supporting its innate ability to heal itself. Here is a sample of the broad range of benefits confirmed by research and published in the world’s leading peer-reviewed medical and academic journals.

Official recognition and support

The National Institutes of Health in the USA have to date granted over $24 million to study the effect of Transcendental Meditation for the prevention and treatment of heart disease, hypertension, and stroke.

This research has so far reported :

  • Reduced risk factors for hypertension, diabetes, and obesity (American Medical Association’s Archives of Internal Medicine)
  • Increased lifespan (American Journal of Cardiology)
  • Reduced thickening of coronary arteries (American Heart Association’s Stroke)
  • Reduced blood pressure in comparison with other procedures (Ethnicity & Disease)
  • Reduced heart failure (Ethnicity & Disease)
  • Reduced use of hypertensive medication (American Journal of Hypertension)
  • Improved brain response to stress and pain (NeuroReport)

Less Anxiety

Alexander C.N., et al. Effects of the Transcendental Meditation program on stress reduction, health, and employee development: A prospective study in two occupational settings. Anxiety, Stress and Coping: An International Journal 6: 245-262, 1993.

Candelent T., et al. Teaching Transcendental Meditation in a psychiatric setting. Hospital & Community Psychiatry 26: 156-159, 1975.

Dillbeck M.C. The effect of the Transcendental Meditation technique on anxiety level. Journal of Clinical Psychology 33: 1076-1078, 1977.

Eppley K.R. et al. Differential effects of relaxation techniques on trait anxiety: A meta-analysis. Journal of Clinical Psychology 45: 957-974, 1989.

Higher Levels of Brain Functioning

Arenander A. and Travis F.T. Brain patterns of Self-awareness. In B Beitman and J Nair, Eds. Self-Awareness Deficits. New York: W.W.Norton, 2004.

Badawi K., et al.. Electrophysiologic characteristics of respiratory suspension periods occurring during the practice of the Transcendental Meditation program. Psychosomatic Medicine 46(3): 267–276, 1984.

Banquet J.P. and Lesevre N. Event-related potentials in altered states of consciousness: Motivation, motor and sensory processes of the brain. Progress in Brain Research 54: 447-453, 1980.

Bennett J.E. and Trinder J. Hemispheric laterality and cognitive style associated with Transcendental Meditation. Psychophysiology 14: 293-296, 1977.

Dillbeck M. C. and Bronson E. C. Short-term longitudinal effects of the Transcendental Meditation technique on EEG power and coherence. International Journal of Neuroscience 14: 147–151, 1981.

Dillbec M. C., et al. Frontal EEG coherence, H-reflex recovery, concept learning, and the TM-Sidhi program. International Journal of Neuroscience 15: 151–157, 1981.

Gallois P. Modifications neurophysiologiques et respiratoires lors de la pratique des techniques de relaxation. L’Encéphale 10: 139-144, 1984.

Goddard P.H. Reduced age-related declines of P300 latency in elderly practicing Transcendental Meditation. Psychophysiology 26: 529, 1989.

Yamamoto S., et al. Medial prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulated cortex in the generation of alpha activity induced by Transcendental Meditation: A magnetoencephalographic study. Acta Medica Okayama, 60(1): 51-58, 2006

Hebert R., et al. Enhanced EEG alpha time-domain phase synchrony during Transcendental Meditation: Implications for cortical integration theory. Signal Processing, 85(11): 2213-2232, 2005.

Lyubimov N.N. Electrophysiological characteristics of mobilization of hidden brain reserves. Abstracts, the International Symposium “Physiological and Biochemical Basis of Brain Activity” (St. Petersburg, Russia: Russian Academy of Science, Institute of the Human Brain): 5, 1994.

Mason L. I., et al. Electrophysiological correlates of higher states of consciousness during sleep in long-term practitioners of the Transcendental Meditation program. Sleep 20 (2): 102-110, 1997.

McEvoy T.M., et al. Effects of meditation on brainstem auditory evoked potentials. International Journal of Neuroscience 10: 165-170, 1980.

Nidich S.I., et al. Kohlbergian cosmic perspective responses, EEG coherence, and the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program. Journal of Moral Education 12: 166-173, 1983.

Orme-Johnson D.W. and Haynes C.T. EEG phase coherence, pure consciousness, creativity, and TM-Sidhi experiences. International Journal of Neuroscience 13: 211–217, 1981.

Orme-Johnson D.W. and Gelderloos P. Topographic EEG brain mapping during Yogic Flying. International Journal of Neuroscience 38: 427-434, 1988.

Travis F. Eyes open and TM EEG patterns after one and after eight years of TM practice. Psychophysiology 28 (3a): S58, 1991.

Travis F. and Miskov S. P300 latency and amplitude during eyes-closed rest and Transcendental Meditation practice. Psychophysiology 31: S67 (Abstract), 1994.

Wallace R.K., et al. Modification of the paired H reflex through the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program. Experimental Neurology 79: 77-86, 1983.

Wallace R. K., et al. Modification of the paired H reflex through the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program. Experimental Neurology 79: 77–86, 1983.

Reduced Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors

Reduced Atherosclerosis/Stroke

Castillo-Richmond A., et al. Effects of the Transcendental Meditation Program on carotid atherosclerosis in hypertensive African Americans, Stroke 31: 568-573, 2000. Full article

Lower Blood Pressure

Alexander C.N., et al. Transcendental Meditation, mindfulness, and longevity: An experimental study with the elderly. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 57:950-964, 1989.

Alexander C.N., et al. Trial of stress reduction for hypertension in older African Americans (part II): sex and risk subgroup analysis. Hypertension 28:228-237, 1996.

Anderson J.W., et al. Blood pressure response to Transcendental Meditation: a meta-analysis. American Journal of Hypertension 21 (3): 310-6, 2008.

Barnes V.A., et al. Impact of Transcendental Meditation on ambulatory blood pressure in African-American adolescents. American Journal of Hypertension 17: 366-369, 2004.

Barnes V. A., et al. Stress, stress reduction, and hypertension in African Americans. Journal of the National Medical Association, 89, 464-476, 1997.

Barnes V. A., et al. (1999). Acute effects of Transcendental Meditation on hemodynamic functioning in middle-aged adults. Psychosomatic Medicine, 61, 88, 525-531.

Rainforth M.V., et al. Stress reduction programs in patients with elevated blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Current Hypertension Reports 9:520–528, 2007. Full article

Schneider R.H., et al. A randomized controlled trial of stress reduction in the treatment of hypertension in African Americans during one year. American Journal of Hypertension 18(1): 88-98, 2005. Full article

Schneider R.H., et al. Long-term effects of stress reduction on mortality in persons > 55 years of age with systemic hypertension. American Journal of Cardiology 95:1060-1064, 2005. Full article

Schneider R.H., et al. A randomized controlled trial of stress reduction for hypertension in older African Americans. Hypertension 26: 820-827, 1995.

Decreased Cholesterol

Cooper M. J., et al. Transcendental Meditation in the management of hypercholesterolemia. Journal of Human Stress 5(4): 24–27, 1979.

Cooper M. J. and Aygen M. M. Effect of Transcendental Meditation on serum cholesterol and blood pressure. Harefuah, Journal of the Israel Medical Association 95(1): 1-2, 1978.

Reduced Congestive Heart Failure

Jayadevappa R., et al. Effectiveness of Transcendental Meditation on functional capacity and quality of life of African Americans with congestive heart failure: a randomized control study. Ethnicity and Disease 17: 72-77, 2007. Full article

Decreased Free Radicals

Van Wijk E.P.A., et al. Anatomical characterization of human ultraweak photon emission in practitioners of Transcendental Meditation and control subjects. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine 12:31-38, 1998.

Schneider R.H., et al. Lower lipid peroxide levels and practitioners of the Transcendental Meditation program. Psychosomatic Medicine 60: 38-41, 1998.

Van Wijk E.P.A., et al. Differential Effects of Relaxation Techniques on Ultraweak Photon Emission. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine 14:241-250, 2008.

Reduced Metabolic Syndrome/Pre-Diabetes

Paul-Labrador M., et al. Effects of randomized controlled trial of Transcendental Meditation on components of the metabolic syndrome in subjects with coronary heart disease. Archives of Internal Medicine 166:1218-1224, 2006.

Review Papers on Cardiovascular Disease and Risk Factors

Alexander C.N., et al. Effects of Transcendental Meditation compared to other methods of relaxation and meditation in reducing risk factors, morbidity and mortality. Homeostasis 35:243-264, 1994.

Barnes V.A., and Orme-Johnson D. W. Clinical and Pre-clinical Applications of the Transcendental Meditation Program® in the Prevention and Treatment of Essential Hypertension and Cardiovascular Disease in Youth and Adults: A Research Review. Current Hypertension Reviews 2:207-218, 2006.

Schneider R.H., et al. Cardiovascular disease prevention and health promotion with the Transcendental Meditation program and Maharishi Consciousness-Based Health Care. Ethnicity and Disease 16 (3 Suppl 4):S4-15-26, 2006. Full article

Walton K.G., et al. Review of controlled clinical research on the Transcendental Meditation program and cardiovascular disease: Risk factors, morbidity, and mortality. Cardiology in Review 12(5): 262-266, 2004. Full article

Walton K.G., et al. Psychosocial stress and cardiovascular disease, Part 2: Effectiveness of the Transcendental Meditation program in treatment and prevention. Behavioral Medicine 28: 106-123, 2002.

Reduced Congestive Heart Failure

Jayadevappa R., et al. Effectiveness of Transcendental Meditation on functional capacity and quality of life of African Americans with congestive heart failure: a randomized control study. Ethnicity and Disease 17: 72-77, 2007. Full Article

Reversal of Aging and Increased Longevity

Alexander C.N., et al. Transcendental Meditation, mindfulness, and longevity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 57: 950-964, 1989.

Alexander C. N., et al. The effects of Transcendental Meditation compared to other methods of relaxation in reducing risk factors, morbidity, and mortality. Homeostasis 35, 243-264, 1994.

Barnes V. A., et al. Impact of Transcendental Meditation on mortality in older African Americans—eight year follow-up. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality 17(1) 201-216, 2005.

Glaser J. L., et al. Elevated serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate levels in practitioners of the Transcendental Meditation (TM) and TM-Sidhi programs. Journal of Behavioral Medicine 15: 327-341, 1992.

Schneider R. H., et al. The Transcendental Meditation program: reducing the risk of heart disease and mortality and improving quality of life in African Americans. Ethnicity and Disease 11; 159-60, 2001.

Schneider R.H., et al. Long-term effects of stress reduction on mortality in persons > 55 years of age with systemic hypertension. American Journal of Cardiology 95: 1060-1064, 2005. Full article

Wallace R.K., et al. The effects of the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program on the aging process. International Journal of Neuroscience 16: 53-58, 1982.

Decreased Cholesterol

Cooper M. J., et al. Transcendental Meditation in the management of hypercholesterolemia. Journal of Human Stress 5(4): 24–27, 1979.

Cooper M. J. and Aygen M. M. Effect of Transcendental Meditation on serum cholesterol and blood pressure. Harefuah, Journal of the Israel Medical Association 95(1): 1-2, 1978.

Transcendental Meditation May Improve Cardiac Risk Factors in Patients with Coronary Heart Disease

JUNE 12, 2006 — A relaxation technique known as Transcendental Meditation may decrease blood pressure and reduce insulin resistance among patients with coronary heart disease, according to a report in the June 12 issue of Archives of Internal Medicine, one of the JAMA/Archives journals.

Transcendental Meditation, derived from the ancient Vedic tradition in India, is taught through a standard protocol involving lectures, personal instruction and group meetings, according to background information in the article. It has previously been shown to lower blood pressure but its effect on other risk factors associated with coronary heart disease, including those linked to the metabolic syndrome, has not been thoroughly examined. The metabolic syndrome refers to a cluster of symptoms that increase cardiac risk, including high blood pressure (hypertension), abdominal obesity, high cholesterol and insulin resistance, which occurs when the body is unable to use the insulin produced by the pancreas to process sugar into energy.

Maura Paul-Labrador, M.P.H., Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, and colleagues conducted a 16-week trial of Transcendental Meditation in patients with coronary heart disease. Fifty-two participants (average age 67.7 years) were instructed in Transcendental Meditation and 51 control patients (average age 67.1 years) received health education. At the beginning and end of the trial, the patients fasted overnight and then gave a blood sample, participated in a medical history review and underwent tests of blood vessel function and heart rate variability. Heart rate variability testing assesses the functioning of the autonomic nervous system, which controls the heart and other involuntary muscles.

Overall, of the 103 participants who were enrolled, 84 (82 percent) completed the study. At the end of the trial, patients in the Transcendental Meditation group had significantly lower blood pressure; improved fasting blood glucose and insulin levels, which signify reduced insulin resistance; and more stable functioning of the autonomic nervous system. “These physiological effects were accomplished without changes in body weight, medication or psychosocial variables and despite a marginally statistically significant increase in physical activity in the health education group,” the authors write.

“These current results also expand our causal understanding of the role of stress in the rising epidemic of the metabolic syndrome,” they continue. “Although current low levels of stress.” Such stress causes the release of cortisol and other hormones and neurotransmitters, which over time damage the cardiovascular system.

“Our results, demonstrating beneficial physiological effects of Transcendental Meditation in the absence of effects on psychosocial variables, suggest that Transcendental Meditation may modulate response to stress rather than alter the stress itself, similar to the physiological impact of exercise conditioning,” the authors write. This method of controlling the body’s response to stress may provide a new target for the treatment and prevention of coronary heart disease, warranting further study, they conclude.

(Arch Inter Med. 2006;166:1218-1224. Available pre-embargo to the media at www.jamamedia.org.) Full Article

Editor’s Note: This study was supported by grants from the National Center for Alternative and Complementary Medicine, National Institutes of Health; and a General Clinical Research Centers grant from the National Center for Research Resources.

For more information, contact JAMA/Archives Media Relations at 312/464-JAMA (5262) or e-mail mediarelations@jama-archives.org.

Crime, Economy, Social Trends

Time series analysis of improved quality of life in Canada: Social change, collective consciousness, and the TM-Sidhi program. Psychological Reports, 76, 1171–1193 (1995).

Alleviating political violence through reducing collective tension: Impact assessment analyses of the Lebanon war. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality 17(1): 285–338 (2005).

Alleviating political violence through enhancing coherence in collective consciousness: Impact assessment analyses of the Lebanon war. Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science, 95(1), 1 (1988).

Test of a field theory of consciousness and social change: Time series analysis of participation in the TM-Sidhi program and reduction of violent death in the U.S. Social Indicators Research, 22, 399–418 (1990).

The Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program and decreased urban crime. Journal of Mind and Behavior, 9(4), 457–486 (1988).

Consciousness as a field: The Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program and changes in social indicators. Journal of Mind and Behavior, 8(1), 67–104 (1987).

The Transcendental Meditation program and crime rate change in a sample of forty-eight cities. Journal of Crime and Justice, 4, 25–45 (1981).

Transforming political institutions through individual and collective consciousness: The Maharishi Effect and government. Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, Washington, D.C. (1997).

Results of the National Demonstration Project to Reduce Violent Crime and Improve Governmental Effectiveness in Washington, D.C. Social Indicators Research, 47, 153-201 (1999).

The Maharishi Effect: A model for social improvement. Time series analysis of a phase transition to reduced crime in Merseyside metropolitan area. PsychologyCrime & Law, 2(3), 165–174 1996).

Preventing terrorism and international conflict: Effects of large assemblies of participants in theTranscendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi programs. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 36 (1-4), 283–302 (2003).

The effects of the Maharishi Technology of the Unified Field: Reply to a methodological critique. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 34, 756–768 (1990).

International peace project in the Middle East: The effect of the Maharishi Technology of the Unified Field. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 32(4), 776–812 (1988).

Depression, Anxiety, Insomnia

Decreased Depression

Brooks J.S., et al. Transcendental Meditation in the treatment of post-Vietnam adjustment. Journal of Counseling and Development, 64:212–215, 1985.

Kniffki C. Tranzendentale Meditation und Autogenes Training- Ein Vergleich (Transcendental Meditation and Autogenic Training: A Comparison). Munich: Kindler Verlag Geist und Psyche, 1979.

Geisler M. Therapeutiche Wirkungen der Transzendentalen Meditation auf drogenkonsumenten (Therapeutic effects of Transcendental Meditation on drug use). Zeitschrift fur Klinische Psychologie 7:235-255, 1978.

Ferguson P.C., et al. Psychological Findings on Transcendental Meditation. Journal of Humanistic Psychology 16:483-488, 1976.

Less Anxiety

Alexander C.N., et al. Effects of the Transcendental Meditation program on stress reduction, health, and employee development: A prospective study in two occupational settings. Anxiety, Stress and Coping: An International Journal 6: 245-262, 1993.

Candelent T., et al. Teaching Transcendental Meditation in a psychiatric setting. Hospital & Community Psychiatry 26: 156-159, 1975.

Dillbeck M.C. The effect of the Transcendental Meditation technique on anxiety level. Journal of Clinical Psychology 33: 1076-1078, 1977.

Eppley K.R. et al. Differential effects of relaxation techniques on trait anxiety: A meta-analysis. Journal of Clinical Psychology 45: 957-974, 1989.

Reduced Insomnia

Ljunggren G. Inflytandet av Transcendental Meditation pa neuroticism, medicinbruk och sömnproblem. Läkartidningen 74(47): 4212–4214, 1977.

Orme-Johnson D. W., et al. Meditation in the treatment of chronic pain and insomnia. In National Institutes of Health Technology Assessment Conference on Integration of Behavioral and Relaxation Approaches into the Treatment of Chronic Pain and Insomnia, Bethesda Maryland: National Institutes of Health, 1995.

Lovell-Smith H. D. Transcendental Meditation—treating the patient as well as the disease. The New Zealand Family Physician 9: 62–65, April 1982.

Increased Efficiency and Productivity

Alexander C. N., et al. Effects of the Transcendental Meditation program on stress-reduction, health, and employee development: A prospective study in two occupational settings. Stress, Anxiety and Coping, 6, 245–262, 1993.

Alexander C. N., et al. Promoting adult psychological development: Implications for management education. Proceedings of the Association of Management, Human Resource Management 2, 133–137, 1990.

Appelle S. and Oswald L.E. Simple reaction time as a function of alertness and prior mental activity. Perceptual and Motor Skills 38: 1263-1268, 1974.

Broome R., et al. Worksite stress reduction through the Transcendental Meditation Program. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 17(1), 235–276, 2005.

Frew D.R. Transcendental Meditation and productivity. Academy of Management Journal 17: 362-368, 1974.

Harung H. S., et al. Peak performance and higher states of consciousness: A study of world-class performers. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 11, (4), 3–23, 1996.

Holt W.R. et al. Transcendental Meditation vs. pseudo-meditation on visual choice reaction time. Perceptual and Motor Skills 46: 726, 1978.

McCollum B. Leadership development and self development: An empirical study. Career Development International, 4, (3). 149–154, 1999.

Schmidt-Wilk J. Developing consciousness in organizations: The Transcendental Meditation program in business. Journal of Business & Psychology, 10, (4), 429–444, 1996.

So K.T., et al. Three randomized experiments on the holistic longitudinal effects of the Transcendental Meditation technique on cognition. Intelligence, 29(5), 419-440, 2001.

Warshal D. Effects of the Transcendental Meditation technique on normal and Jendrassik reflex time. Perceptual and Motor Skills 50: 1103-1106, 1980.

Schmidt-Wilk J. Consciousness-based management development: Case studies of international top management teams. Journal of Transnational Management Development, 5, (3), 61–85, 2000.

Improved Intelligence, Creativity and Learning Ability

Alexander C. N. and Gackenbach J. Transcendental Meditation and improved performance on intelligence-related measures: A longitudinal study. Personality and Individual Differences, 12, 1105–1116, 1991.

Aron A., et al. The Transcendental Meditation program in the college curriculum: A 4-year longitudinal study of effects on cognitive and affective functioning. College Student Journal 15: 140-146, 1981.

Cranson R.W., et al. Transcendental Meditation and improved performance on intelligence-related measures: A longitudinal study. Personality and Individual Differences 12: 1105-1116, 1991.

Dillbeck M.C., et al. Frontal EEG coherence, H-reflex recovery, concept learning, and the TM-Sidhi program. International Journal of Neuroscience 15: 151-157, 1981.

Dillbeck M.C. Meditation and flexibility of visual perception and verbal problem-solving. Memory & Cognition 10: 207-215, 1982.

Dillbeck M.C., et al. Longitudinal effects of the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program on cognitive ability and cognitive style. Perceptual and Motor Skills 62: 731-738, 1986.

Fergusson L.F., et al. Vedic Science based education and nonverbal intelligence: A preliminary longitudinal study in Cambodia. Higher Education Research and Development 15: 73-82, 1995.

Jedrczak A., et al. The TM-Sidhi programme, age, and brief test of perceptual-motor speed and nonverbal intelligence. Journal of Clinical Psychology 42: 161-164, 1986.

Jedrczak, A., et al. The TM-Sidhi programme, pure consciousness, creativity and intelligence. The Journal of Creative Behavior 19: 270-275, 1985.

So K.T. and Orme-Johnson D. W. Three randomized experiments on the holistic longitudinal effects of the Transcendental Meditation technique on cognition. Intelligence, 29(5), 419-440, 2001.

Warner T.Q. Transcendental Meditation and developmental advancement: Mediating abilities and conservation performance. Dissertation Abstracts International 47(8): 3558B, 1987.

Warner T.Q. Transcendental Meditation and developmental advancement: Mediating abilities and conservation performance. Dissertation Abstracts International 47(8): 3558B, 1987.

Travis F. The Transcendental Meditation technique and creativity: A longitudinal study of Cornell University undergraduates. Journal of Creative Behavior 13: 169-180, 1979.

Tjoa A. Increased intelligence and reduced neuroticism through the Transcendental Meditation program. Gedrag: Tijdschrift voor Psychologie 3: 167-182, 1975.

So K.T. and Orme-Johnson D.W. Three randomized experiments on the longitudinal effects of the Transcendental Meditation technique on cognition. Intelligence 29: 419-440, 2001.

Improved Academics

Nidich S.I., et al. School effectiveness: Achievement gains at the Maharishi School of the Age of Enlightenment. Education 107: 49-54, 1986.

Kember P. The Transcendental Meditation technique and postgraduate academic performance. British Journal of Educational Psychology 55: 164-166, 1985.

Fergusson L.C. Field Independence and art achievement in meditating and nonmeditating college students. Perceptual and Motor Skills 75: 1171-1175, 1992.

Nidich S.I. and Nidich R.J. Increased academic achievement at Maharishi School of the Age of Enlightenment: A replication study. Education 109: 302-304, 1989.

Improved School Behavior

Barnes V.A., et al. Impact of stress reduction on negative school behavior in adolescents. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes 1:10, 2003.

Fergusson L.F., et al. Personality and health characteristics of Cambodian undergraduates: A case for student development. Journal of Instructional Psychology 22: 308-319, 1995.

Benefits for Special and Remedial Education

Subrahmanyam S. and Porkodi K. Neurohumoral correlates of Transcendental Meditation. Journal of Biomedicine 1: 73-88, 1980.

Eyerman J. Transcendental Meditation and mental retardation. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 42: 35-36, 1981

Improved Integration of Personality

Alexander C.N., et al. Transcendental consciousness: a fourth state of consciousness beyond sleep, dreaming, and waking. in J. Gackenbach (ed.), Sleep and Dreams: A Sourcebook, New York: Garland Publishing, Inc., 282–315, 1986.

Alexander C.N., et al. Growth of higher stages of consciousness: Maharishi’s Vedic psychology of human development. in Charles N. Alexander and Ellen J. Langer (eds.), Higher Stages of Human Development: Perspectives on Adult Growth. New York: Oxford University Press (1990).

Alexander C. N., et al. Major issues in the exploration of adult growth. In C. N. Alexander and E. J. Langer (Eds.), Higher stages of human development: Perspectives on adult growth (p. 3-32). New York: Oxford University Press, 1990.

Alexander C. N., et al. Advanced human development in the Vedic Psychology of Maharishi Mahesh Yogi: Theory and research. In M. E. Miller and S. R. Cook-Greuter (Eds.), Transcendence and mature thought in adulthood: The further reaches of adult development (pp. 39-70). Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 1994.

Alexander C.N., et al. Effect of Practice of The Children’s Transcendental Meditation Technique on Cognitive Stage Development: Acquisition And Consolidation of Conservation, Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 17, 21-46, 2005.

Alexander C.N., et al. Transcendental Meditation, self-actualization, and psychological health: A conceptual overview and statistical meta-analysis. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality 6: 189-247, 1991.

Chandler H.M., et al. Transcendental Meditation and postconventional self-development: A 10-year longitudinal study. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 17(1), 93–121, 2005.

Gelderloos P. Cognitive orientation toward positive values in advanced participants of the TM and TM-Sidhi program. Perceptual and Motor Skills 64: 1003-1012, 1987.

Gelderloos P. Field independence of students at Maharishi School of the Age of Enlightenment and a Montessori school. Perceptual and Motor Skills 65: 613-614, 1987.

Gelderloos P. and Beto, Z. H. A. D. The Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program and reported experiences of transcendental consciousness. Psychologia—An International Journal of Psychology in the Orient 32(2): 91–103, 1989.

Jedraczak A. The Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program and field independence. Perceptual and Motor Skills 59: 999-100, 1984.

Gelderloos P., et al. Transcendence and psychological health: studies with long-term participants of the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program. Journal of Psychology 124(2), 177–197, 1990.

Gelderloos P., et al. Field independence of students at Maharishi School of the Age of Enlightenment and a Montessori school. Perceptual and Motor Skills 65: 613–614, 1987.

Nidich S., et al. Influence of Transcendental Meditation: A replication. Journal of Counseling Psychology 20: 565-566, 1973.

Barnes V. A., et al. Stress, stress reduction, and hypertension in African Americans. Journal of the National Medical Association, 89, 464-476, 1997.

Pelletier K.R. Influence of Transcendental Meditation upon autokinetic perception. Perceptual and Motor Skills 39: 1031-1034, 1974.

Dillbeck M.C. and Orme-Johnson D. W. Physiological differences between Transcendental Meditation and rest. American Psychologist 42:879–881, 1987.

Jevning R., et al. The physiology of meditation: a review. A wakeful hypometabolic integrated response. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews 16(3):415-24, 1992.

Jevning R., et al. The transcendental meditation technique, adrenocortical activity, and implications for stress. Experientia 34(5):618-9, May 15, 1978.

Jevning R., et al. Adrenocortical activity during meditation, Hormonal Behavior 10(1):54-60, Feb. 1978.

Orme-Johnson D.W. Autonomic stability and Transcendental Meditation. Psychosomatic Medicine 35, 341-349, 1973.

Orme-Johnson D.W. and Walton K. W. All approaches of preventing or reversing effects of stress are not the same. American Journal of Health Promotion 12:297-299, 1998.

Schneider R.H. Altered responses of cortisol, GH, TSH and testosterone to acute stress after four months’ practice of Transcendental Meditation (TM). Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 746:381-384, 1994.

Subrahmanyam S. and Porkodi K. Neurohumoral correlates of Transcendental Meditation. Journal of Biomedicine 1: 73–88, 1980.

Walton K.G., et al. Lowering cortisol and CVD risk in postmenopausal women: a pilot study using the Transcendental Meditation program. Annals of New York Academy of Sciences 1032:211-215, 2005. Improved School Behavior.

Barnes V.A., et al. Impact of stress reduction on negative school behavior in adolescents. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes 1:10, 2003.

Fergusson L.F., et al. Personality and health characteristics of Cambodian undergraduates: A case for student development. Journal of Instructional Psychology 22: 308-319, 1995.

Reduction in Pain

Orme-Johnson D.W, et al. Neuroimaging of meditation’s effect on brain reactivity to pain. NeuroReport 17(12):1359-63, 2006. Full article

Mills W. W. and Farrow J. T. The Transcendental Meditation technique and acute experimental pain. Psychosomatic Medicine 43(2): 157–164, 1981.

Zammara J. W., et al. Usefulness of the Transcendental Meditation program in the treatment of patients with coronary artery disease. American Journal of Cardiology, 77, 867-870, et al.

Reduced Blood Pressure

(Current Hypertension Reports, December 2007)

This meta-analysis of 17 published studies from the medical literature (selected from over 100 published studies for their careful experimental design utilizing randomized controlled trials) reported on the effects of stress reduction techniques on elevated blood pressure in about 1000 subjects total.

The treatments employed included simple biofeedback, relaxation-assisted biofeedback, progressive muscle relaxation, stress management training, and the Transcendental Meditation program. The results of statistical analyses showed that none of the first 4 treatment approaches demonstrated statistically significant reductions in elevated blood pressure, while the Transcendental Meditation program showed both significant clinical and statistical reductions in blood pressure.

Other studies

Alexander C.N., et al. Transcendental Meditation, mindfulness, and longevity: An experimental study with the elderly. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 57:950-964, 1989.

Alexander C.N., et al. Trial of stress reduction for hypertension in older African Americans (part II): sex and risk subgroup analysis. Hypertension 28:228-237, 1996.

Anderson J.W., et al. Blood pressure response to Transcendental Meditation: a meta-analysis. American Journal of Hypertension 21 (3): 310-6, 2008.

Barnes V.A., et al. Impact of Transcendental Meditation on ambulatory blood pressure in African-American adolescents. American Journal of Hypertension 17: 366-369, 2004.

Barnes V. A., et al. Stress, stress reduction, and hypertension in African Americans. Journal of the National Medical Association, 89, 464-476, 1997.

Barnes V. A., et al. (1999). Acute effects of Transcendental Meditation on hemodynamic functioning in middle-aged adults. Psychosomatic Medicine, 61, 88, 525-531.

Rainforth M.V., et al. Stress reduction programs in patients with elevated blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Current Hypertension Reports 9:520–528, 2007. Full article

Schneider R.H., et al. A randomized controlled trial of stress reduction in the treatment of hypertension in African Americans during one year. American Journal of Hypertension 18(1): 88-98, 2005. Full article

Remedial Education

Benefits for Special and Remedial Education

Eyerman J. Transcendental Meditation and mental retardation. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 42: 35-36, 1981

Subrahmanyam S. and Porkodi K. Neurohumoral correlates of Transcendental Meditation. Journal of Biomedicine 1: 73-88, 1980.

Improved Intelligence, Creativity and Learning Ability

Alexander C. N. and Gackenbach J. Transcendental Meditation and improved performance on intelligence-related measures: A longitudinal study. Personality and Individual Differences, 12, 1105–1116, 1991.

Aron A., et al. The Transcendental Meditation program in the college curriculum: A 4-year longitudinal study of effects on cognitive and affective functioning. College Student Journal 15: 140-146, 1981.

Cranson R.W., et al. Transcendental Meditation and improved performance on intelligence-related measures: A longitudinal study. Personality and Individual Differences 12: 1105-1116, 1991.

Dillbeck M.C., et al. Frontal EEG coherence, H-reflex recovery, concept learning, and the TM-Sidhi program. International Journal of Neuroscience 15: 151-157, 1981.

Dillbeck M.C. Meditation and flexibility of visual perception and verbal problem-solving. Memory & Cognition 10: 207-215, 1982.

Dillbeck M.C., et al. Longitudinal effects of the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program on cognitive ability and cognitive style. Perceptual and Motor Skills 62: 731-738, 1986.

Fergusson L.F., et al. Vedic Science based education and nonverbal intelligence: A preliminary longitudinal study in Cambodia. Higher Education Research and Development 15: 73-82, 1995.

Travis F. The Transcendental Meditation technique and creativity: A longitudinal study of Cornell University undergraduates. Journal of Creative Behavior 13: 169-180, 1979.

Jedrczak A., et al. The TM-Sidhi programme, age, and brief test of perceptual-motor speed and nonverbal intelligence. Journal of Clinical Psychology 42: 161-164, 1986.

Jedrczak, A., et al. The TM-Sidhi programme, pure consciousness, creativity and intelligence. The Journal of Creative Behavior 19: 270-275, 1985.

So K.T. and Orme-Johnson D. W. Three randomized experiments on the holistic longitudinal effects of the Transcendental Meditation technique on cognition. Intelligence, 29(5), 419-440, 2001.

Tjoa A. Increased intelligence and reduced neuroticism through the Transcendental Meditation program. Gedrag: Tijdschrift voor Psychologie 3: 167-182, 1975.

Travis F. The Transcendental Meditation technique and creativity: A longitudinal study of Cornell University undergraduates. Journal of Creative Behavior 13: 169-180, 1979.

Warner T.Q. Transcendental Meditation and developmental advancement: Mediating abilities and conservation performance. Dissertation Abstracts International 47(8): 3558B, 1987.

So K.T. and Orme-Johnson D.W. Three randomized experiments on the longitudinal effects of the Transcendental Meditation technique on cognition. Intelligence 29: 419-440, 2001.

Improved Academics

Fergusson L.C. Field Independence and art achievement in meditating and nonmeditating college students. Perceptual and Motor Skills 75: 1171-1175, 1992.

Kember P. The Transcendental Meditation technique and postgraduate academic performance. British Journal of Educational Psychology 55: 164-166, 1985.

Nidich S.I., et al. School effectiveness: Achievement gains at the Maharishi School of the Age of Enlightenment. Education 107: 49-54, 1986.

Nidich S.I. and Nidich R.J. Increased academic achievement at Maharishi School of the Age of Enlightenment: A replication study. Education 109: 302-304, 1989.

Improved School Behavior

Barnes V.A., et al. Impact of stress reduction on negative school behavior in adolescents. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes 1:10, 2003.

Fergusson L.F., et al. Personality and health characteristics of Cambodian undergraduates: A case for student development. Journal of Instructional Psychology 22: 308-319, 1995.

Reduced Stress

Barnes V. A., et al. Stress, stress reduction, and hypertension in African Americans. Journal of the National Medical Association, 89, 464-476, 1997.

Dillbeck M.C. and Orme-Johnson D. W. Physiological differences between Transcendental Meditation and rest. American Psychologist 42:879–881, 1987.

Jevning R., et al. The physiology of meditation: a review. A wakeful hypometabolic integrated response. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews 16(3):415-24, 1992.

Jevning R., et al. The transcendental meditation technique, adrenocortical activity, and implications for stress. Experientia 34(5):618-9, May 15, 1978.

Jevning R., et al. Adrenocortical activity during meditation, Hormonal Behavior 10(1):54-60, Feb. 1978.

Orme-Johnson D.W. Autonomic stability and Transcendental Meditation. Psychosomatic Medicine 35, 341-349, 1973.

Orme-Johnson D.W. and Walton K. W. All approaches of preventing or reversing effects of stress are not the same. American Journal of Health Promotion 12:297-299, 1998.

Schneider R.H. Altered responses of cortisol, GH, TSH and testosterone to acute stress after four months’ practice of Transcendental Meditation (TM). Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 746:381-384, 1994.

Subrahmanyam S. and Porkodi K. Neurohumoral correlates of Transcendental Meditation. Journal of Biomedicine 1: 73–88, 1980.

Walton K.G., et al. Lowering cortisol and CVD risk in postmenopausal women: a pilot study using the Transcendental Meditation program. Annals of New York Academy of Sciences 1032:211-215, 2005.

Faster Recovery from Stress

Barnes V. A., et al. Impact of Transcendental Meditation on cardiovascular function at rest and during acute stress in adolescents with high normal blood pressure. Journal of Psychosomatic Research 51, 597-605, 2001.

Brooks J.S. and Scarano T. Transcendental Meditation in the treatment of post-Vietnam adjustment. Journal of Counseling and Development 64: 212-215, 1985.

Gaylord C., et al. The effects of the Transcendental Meditation technique and progressive muscle relaxation on EEG coherence, stress reactivity, and mental health in black adults. International Journal of Neuroscience 46: 77-86, 1989.

Orme-Johnson D.W. Autonomic stability and Transcendental Meditation. Psychosomatic Medicine 35: 341-349, 1973.

“Life finds its purpose and fulfilment in the expansion of happiness”

Maharishi Mahesh Yogi
Founder of Transcendental Meditation


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